What is Android

Introducing Android
The world's most powerful mobile platform

There's no other software quite like Android. Google engineered Android, and Google’s own apps run best on it. And with millions of apps, games, songs, and videos on Google Play, Android is great for fun, and for getting things done.
Android devices come in all kinds of sizes, with all sorts of features, and at all sorts of prices. Each version of Android is named after a dessert, and the most recent version of Android is Jelly Bean. With Android, you’re in control of your mobile experience.

Take Google with you

Take Google with you on your mobile device: all the Google products you know and love, designed to work best on Android phones and tablets.
Search the Web, Navigate your World, Connect & Share , Be Entertained
Create & Collaborate

Search the web

The fastest, easiest way to find what you need on the web and your phone or tablet. Enjoy the power of Google search wherever you are.
With Google Now, get just the right information at just the right time..
Browse fast on your Android phone or tablet with Chrome. Bring your personalized Chrome experience with you anywhere you go.

Navigate your World

Never get lost as you go to new places and old favorites. Get voice-guided turn-by-turn GPS navigation to your destination, powerful local search with full place reviews and summaries from Zagat editors, detailed maps with 3D buildings, live traffic information and more with Google Maps for Android.

Connect & Share

Stay connected and share epic moments as they happen. Start a group video chat on the go with up to nine people at once with Google+ Hangouts, and never lose another mobile photo with Instant Upload.

Be entertained

Get all your apps & entertainment in one place. Google Play brings you the world's largest collection of eBooks, millions of songs, thousands of movies and TV shows, and a growing selection of magazines – plus over 600,000 apps and games. With Google Play, you can now read, listen and watch anywhere you want — on your tablet, phone, or on the web at — no wires, no syncing and no storage costs.
YouTube puts millions of videos at your fingertips, available on the go wherever you are. .

Create & Collaborate

Google Drive gives you one place to create, share, collaborate and keep your stuff, accessible on all your devices. 

With Gmail, get smarter email wherever you are, integrated with contacts and apps on your Android phone or tablet. 

Your stuff, always available, no wires needed
When you sign in to your phone or tablet with Google, you can access all of your Google stuff (contacts, photos, Gmail and more) quickly and easily. You can also enjoy all of your favorite entertainment across your Android devices and even your computer — no wires, no syncing.

Play everywhere you go
Google Play is the easiest way to enjoy all your favorites: more than 700,000 apps and games, millions of songs, thousands of movies and TV shows, the world's largest collection of eBooks, and a growing selection of magazines. With Google Play, there's no wires, no hassle, just pure entertainment. You can now read, listen and watch anywhere you want—on your tablet, phone, or in any browser at

Powerful, simple, and beautiful
Millions of people use Android because it’s so powerful yet still so easy. The home screen, apps, and widgets are simple to use right out of the box, but completely customizable. With Android, you can create a unique mobile experience that’s just right for you.

Put the important stuff right within reach and interact with your favorite apps directly from your home screen with widgets — see the latest sport scores, view your favorite photos, check the weather or peek at your inbox all without having to open different apps or leave the home screen.

An easy-to-read notification tray gives you quick access to your calls, incoming texts, and new emails in a non-intrusive way.

With Android, you can quickly and seamlessly switch between apps and pick up whatever you were doing. Juggling multiple tasks at once on a mobile device has never been easier.

Voice typing and actions
Control your Android device with your voice. Simply touch the microphone on the keyboard and start talking to write emails, SMS, or any other text — more than 30 languages supported. Text appears in real time, so there’s no waiting.

Photos and videos
Capture special moments with great photos and videos, explore your shots and quickly share your favorites in any way that you want.

Beyond Smart
Your Android device is already smart, and it’s only going to get smarter. Android was the first to bring you features on certain devices like Face Unlock — which uses facial recognition to let you unlock your device with a smile, Android Beam — which lets you share contacts, directions and more by touching two devices together, and Google Now — which brings you just the right information, before you even ask. Check

Choose the Android device that’s right for you
Android powers devices from some of the best phone and tablet makers in the world, like Samsung, HTC, LG, Motorola, Sony, Asus, and more. Android devices comes in all shapes and sizes, with vibrant high-resolution displays and cameras, giving you the flexibility to choose the one that’s just right for you. With smartphones and tablets at every possible price point, and support for physical and virtual keyboards, there’s an Android device for everyone. Android lets you choose what’s right for you through a global partnership network of over 300 carriers, in over 169 countries.

Android, the world's most popular mobile platform
Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It's the largest installed base of any mobile platform and growing fast—every day another million users power up their Android devices for the first time and start looking for apps, games, and other digital content.
Android gives you a world-class platform for creating apps and games for Android users everywhere, as well as an open marketplace for distributing to them instantly.

Global partnerships and large installed base
Building on the contributions of the open-source Linux community and more than 300 hardware, software, and carrier partners, Android has rapidly become the fastest-growing mobile OS.

Every day more than 1 million new Android devices are activated worldwide.

Android’s openness has made it a favorite for consumers and developers alike, driving strong growth in app consumption. Android users download more than 1.5 billion apps and games from Google Play each month.
With its partners, Android is continuously pushing the boundaries of hardware and software forward to bring new capabilities to users and developers. For developers, Android innovation lets you build powerful, differentiated applications that use the latest mobile technologies.

Powerful development framework

Easily optimize a single binary for phones, tablets, and other devices.

Android gives you everything you need to build best-in-class app experiences. It gives you a single application model that lets you deploy your apps broadly to hundreds of millions of users across a wide range of devices—from phones to tablets and beyond.
Android also gives you tools for creating apps that look great and take advantage of the hardware capabilities available on each device. It automatically adapts your UI to look its best on each device, while giving you as much control as you want over your UI on different device types.
For example, you can create a single app binary that's optimized for both phone and tablet form factors. You declare your UI in lightweight sets of XML resources, one set for parts of the UI that are common to all form factors and other sets for optimzations specific to phones or tablets. At runtime, Android applies the correct resource sets based on its screen size, density, locale, and so on.
To help you develop efficiently, the Android Developer Tools offer a full Java IDE with advanced features for developing, debugging, and packaging Android apps. Using the IDE, you can develop on any available Android device or create virtual devices that emulate any hardware configuration.

1.5 billion downloads a month and growing. Get your apps in front of millions of users at Google's scale.

Open marketplace for distributing your apps
Google Play is the premier marketplace for selling and distributing Android apps. When you publish an app on Google Play, you reach the huge installed base of Android.

As an open marketplace, Google Play puts you in control of how you sell your products. You can publish whenever you want, as often as you want, and to the customers you want. You can distribute broadly to all markets and devices or focus on specific segments, devices, or ranges of hardware capabilities.
You can monetize in the way that works best for your business—priced or free, with in-app products or subscriptions—for highest engagement and revenues. You also have complete control of the pricing for your apps and in-app products and can set or change prices in any supported currency at any time.
Beyond growing your customer base, Google Play helps you build visibility and engagement across your apps and brand. As your apps rise in popularity, Google Play gives them higher placement in weekly "top" charts and rankings, and for the best apps promotional slots in curated collections.
Preinstalled on hundreds of millions of Android devices around the world, Google Play can be a growth engine for your business.

Developer Story: Robot Invader

Robot Invader chose Android as the launch platform for their first game, Wind-up Knight.
Hear from the developers themselves how Android helped them reach more than 100 devices with a single app binary, then iterate rapidly to ensure a great experience for users.

About Google

Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.
Our company has packed a lot into a relatively young life. Since Google was founded in 1998, we’ve grown to serve millions of people around the world.


Larry Page and Sergey Brin
September 4, 1998
Initial public offering (NASDAQ)
August 19, 2004
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View
CA 94043

Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at Stanford University in 1995. By 1996, they had built a search engine (initially called BackRub) that used links to determine the importance of individual webpages

Larry and Sergey named the search engine they built “Google,” a play on the word “googol,” the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Google Inc. was born in 1998, when Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim wrote a check for $100,000 to that entity—which until then didn’t exist.

In 2000, we introduced AdWords, a self-service program for creating online ad campaigns. Today our advertising solutions, which include display, mobile and video ads as well as the simple text ads we introduced more than a decade ago, help thousands of businesses grow and be successful.

On April Fools' Day in 2004, we launched Gmail. Our approach to email included features like speedy search, huge amounts of storage and threaded messages.


Our Initial Public Offering of 19,605,052 shares of Class A common stock took place on Wall Street on August 18, 2004.


We acquired digital mapping company Keyhole in 2004, and launched Google Maps and Google Earth in 2005. Today Maps also features live traffic, transit directions and street-level imagery, and Earth lets you explore the ocean and the moon.

Broadcast yourself

In 2006, we acquired online video sharing site YouTube. Today 60 hours of video are uploaded to the site every minute. Cat videos, citizen journalism, political candidacy and double rainbows have never been the same.

The little green robot arrives

Amidst rumors of a “Gphone,” we announced Android—an open platform for mobile devices—and the Open Handset Alliance, in 2007.

CEO and chairman

Larry Page, Google’s original CEO until 2001, took up the title again in April 2011. Eric Schmidt, now our executive chairman, served in the role for 10 years.


In June 2011, we introduced the Google+ project, aimed at bringing the nuance and richness of real-life sharing to the web, and making all of Google better by including people, their relationships and their interests.

Management team

Larry Page and Sergey Brin founded Google in September 1998. Since then, the company has grown to more than 40,000 employees worldwide, with a management team that represents some of the most experienced technology professionals in the industry.
  • Executive Officers
  • Senior Leadership
  • Board of Directors
Executive Officers

Larry Page

Larry Page CEO and Co-FounderAs Google’s chief executive officer, Larry is responsible for Google’s day-to-day-operations, as well as leading the company’s product development and technology strategy. He co-founded Google with Sergey Brin in 1998 while pursuing a Ph.D. at Stanford University, and was the first CEO until 2001—growing the company to more than 200 employees and profitability. From 2001 to 2011, Larry was president of products.

Larry holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and a master’s degree in computer science from Stanford University. He is a member of the National Advisory Committee (NAC) of the University of Michigan College of Engineering, and together with co-founder Sergey Brin, Larry was honored with the Marconi Prize in 2004. He is a trustee on the board of the X PRIZE, and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2004.

Larry on Google+
Eric E. Schmidt
Eric E. Schmidt Executive Chairman

Since joining Google in 2001, Eric Schmidt has helped grow the company from a Silicon Valley startup to a global leader in technology. As executive chairman, he is responsible for the external matters of Google: building partnerships and broader business relationships, government outreach and technology thought leadership, as well as advising the CEO and senior leadership on business and policy issues.
From 2001-2011, Eric served as Google’s chief executive officer, overseeing the company’s technical and business strategy alongside founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Under his leadership, Google dramatically scaled its infrastructure and diversified its product offerings while maintaining a strong culture of innovation.
Prior to joining Google, Eric was the chairman and CEO of Novell and chief technology officer at Sun Microsystems, Inc. Previously, he served on the research staff at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), Bell Laboratories and Zilog. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University as well as a master’s degree and Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Eric is a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the Prime Minister’s Advisory Council in the U.K. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2006 and inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences as a fellow in 2007. He also chairs the board of the New America Foundation, and since 2008 has been a trustee of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In May 2012, Eric became a member of Khan Academy’s board of directors and in 2013 he joined the board of The Economist

Sergey Brin
Sergey Brin Co-Founder

Sergey Brin co-founded Google Inc. in 1998. Today, he directs special projects. From 2001 to 2011, Sergey served as president of technology, where he shared responsibility for the company’s day-to-day operations with Larry Page and Eric Schmidt.
Sergey received a bachelor’s degree with honors in mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at College Park. He is currently on leave from the Ph.D. program in computer science at Stanford University, where he received his master’s degree. Sergey is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a recipient of a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.
He has published more than a dozen academic papers, including Extracting Patterns and Relations from the World Wide WebDynamic Data Mining: A New Architecture for Data with High Dimensionality, which he published with Larry Page; Scalable Techniques for Mining Causal StructuresDynamic Itemset Counting and Implication Rules for Market Basket Data; andBeyond Market Baskets: Generalizing Association Rules to Correlations.

Nikesh Arora
Nikesh Arora Senior Vice President and Chief Business Officer

Nikesh oversees all revenue and customer operations, as well as marketing and partnerships. Since joining Google in 2004, he has held several positions with the company. Most recently, he led Google’s global direct sales operations. He also developed and managed the company’s operations in the European, Middle Eastern and African markets and was responsible for creating and expanding strategic partnerships in those regions for the benefit of Google’s growing number of users and advertisers.
Prior to joining Google, he was chief marketing officer and a member of the management board at T-Mobile Europe. While there, he spearheaded all product development, terminals, brand and marketing activities of T-Mobile Europe. In 1999, he started working with Deutsche Telekom and founded T-Motion PLC, a mobile multimedia subsidiary of T-Mobile International. Prior to joining Deutsche Telekom, Nikesh held management positions at Putnam Investments and Fidelity Investments in Boston.
Nikesh holds a master’s degree from Boston College and an MBA from Northeastern University, both of which were awarded with distinction. He also holds the CFA designation. In 1989, Nikesh graduated from the Institute of Technology in Varanasi, India with a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering.

David C. Drummond
David C. Drummond Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer

David Drummond joined Google in 2002, and serves as senior vice president, corporate development and chief legal officer. He leads Google's global teams for legal, public policy, communications, corporate development/mergers and acquisitions, and product quality operations. He also serves as chairman of Google's investment arms, Google Ventures and Google Capital.
David was first introduced to Google in 1998 as a partner in the corporate transactions group at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich and Rosati, one of the nation's leading law firms representing technology businesses. He served as Google's first outside counsel and worked with Larry Page and Sergey Brin to incorporate the company and secure its initial rounds of financing.
David earned his bachelor’s degree in history from Santa Clara University and his J.D. from Stanford Law School. He serves on the board of directors of Uber Technologies, Inc. and Rocket Lawyer Inc.

Patrick Pichette
Patrick Pichette Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Patrick Pichette is Google’s chief financial officer. He has nearly 20 years of experience in financial operations and management in the telecommunications sector, including seven years at Bell Canada, which he joined in 2001 as executive vice president of planning and performance management. During his time at Bell Canada, he held various executive positions, including CFO from 2002 until the end of 2003, and was instrumental in the management of the most extensive communications network in Canada and its ongoing migration to a new national IP-based infrastructure. Prior to joining Bell Canada, Patrick was a partner at McKinsey & Company, where he was a lead member of McKinsey’s North American Telecom Practice. He also served as vice president and chief financial officer of Call-Net Enterprises Inc., a Canadian telecommunications company.
Patrick is a board member of Trudeau Foundation and serves as an advisor to Engineers Without Borders, Canada. Patrick earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Université du Québec à Montréal. He holds a master’s degree in philosophy, politics and economics from Oxford University, where he attended as a Rhodes Scholar.

Alan Eustace
Senior Leadership
Alan Eustace

Salar Kamangar
Senior Vice President, Knowledge
Salar Kamangar

Sridhar Ramaswamy
Senior Vice President, Products
Sridhar Ramaswamy

Sundar Pichai
Senior Vice President, Ads & Commerce
Sundar Pichai

Susan Wojcicki
Senior Vice President, Android, Chrome & Apps
Susan Wojcicki

Urs Hölzle
Senior Vice President, YouTube
Urs Hölzle

Vic Gundotra
Senior Vice President, Technical Infrastructure, and Google Fellow
Vic Gundotra

Senior Vice President, Social

Board of DirectorsLarry Page, CEO – read Larry's profile
Sergey Brin, Co-Founder – read Sergey's profile
Eric E. Schmidt, Executive Chairman – read Eric's profile

L. John Doerr has served as a member of our board of directors since May 1999. John has been a General Partner of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, a venture capital firm, since August 1980. John has also been a member of the board of directors of Amyris, Inc., a synthetic biology company, since May 2006, and serves as chair of its nominating and governance committee and as a member of its leadership development and compensation committee; and Zynga Inc., a provider of social game services, since April 2013. John was previously a director of, Inc., an internet retail company, from 1996 to 2010. John holds a Master of Business Administration degree from Harvard Business School, and a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering and computer science, and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Rice University.

Diane B. Greene has served as a member of our board of directors since January 2012. Diane has also been a member of the board of directors of Intuit Inc., a provider of business and financial management solutions, since August 2006 and serves on its audit and risk committee and nominating and corporate governance committee. She is also a member of The MIT Corporation, the governing body of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Diane co-founded VMware, Inc., a provider of virtualization and virtualization-based cloud infrastructure solutions, in 1998 and took the company public in 2007. She served as Chief Executive Officer and President of VMware from 1998 to 2008, as a member of the board of directors of VMware from 2007 to 2008, and as an Executive Vice President of EMC Corporation, a provider of information infrastructure and virtual infrastructure technologies, solutions and services, from 2005 to 2008. Prior to VMware, Diane held technical leadership positions at Silicon Graphics Inc., a provider of technical computing, storage and data center solutions, Tandem Computers, Inc., a manufacturer of computer systems, and Sybase Inc., a global enterprise software and services company, and was Chief Executive Officer of VXtreme, Inc., a developer of streaming media solutions. Diane holds a Master of Science degree in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley, a Master of Science degree in naval architecture from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Vermont.

John L. Hennessy has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004, and as Lead Independent Director since April 2007. John has served as the President of Stanford University since September 2000. John has also been a member of the board of directors of Cisco Systems, Inc., a networking equipment company, since January 2002, and serves on its nominating and governance committee and acquisition committee. He also serves as a trustee of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. From 1994 to August 2000, John held various positions at Stanford, including Dean of the Stanford University School of Engineering and Chair of the Stanford University Department of Computer Science. John co-founded and served as the chairman of the board of directors of Atheros Communications, Inc., a wireless semiconductor company, from 1998 to 2010. John holds a Doctoral degree and a Master of Science degree in computer science from the State University of New York, Stony Brook, and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Villanova University.

Ann Mather has served as a member of our board of directors since November 2005. Ann has also been a member of the board of directors of: Glu Mobile Inc., a publisher of mobile games, since September 2005, and serves on its nominating and governance committee; Netflix, Inc., an internet subscription service for movies and television shows, since July 2010, and serves as chair of its audit committee; Shutterfly, Inc., a manufacturer and digital retailer of personalized products and services, since May 2013, and serves on its audit committee; and Solazyme, Inc., a renewable oil and bioproducts company, since April 2011, and serves as chair of its audit committee. Ann has also been an independent trustee to the Dodge & Cox Funds board of trustees since May 2011. Ann was previously a director of Central European Media Enterprises Group, a developer and operator of national commercial television channels and stations in Central and Eastern Europe, from 2004 to 2009, and MoneyGram International, Inc., a global payment services company, from May 2010 to May 2013. From 1999 to 2004, Ann was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Pixar, a computer animation studio. Prior to her service at Pixar, Ann was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Village Roadshow Pictures, the film production division of Village Roadshow Limited. Ann holds a Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in England and is a chartered accountant.

Paul S. Otellini has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. Paul served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of Intel Corporation, a semiconductor manufacturing company, from May 2005 to May 2013, and as a member of its board of directors from 2002 to May 2013. He also served as Intel’s Chief Operating Officer from 2002 to May 2005. From 1974 to 2002, Paul held various positions at Intel, including Executive Vice President and General Manager, Intel Architecture Group, and Executive Vice President and General Manager, Sales and Marketing Group. Paul holds a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics from the University of San Francisco.

K. Ram Shriram has served as a member of our board of directors since September 1998. Ram has been a managing partner of Sherpalo Ventures, LLC, an angel venture investment company, since January 2000. From August 1998 to September 1999, Ram served as Vice President of Business Development at, Inc., an internet retail company. Prior to that, Ram served as President at Junglee Corporation, a provider of database technology, which was acquired by in 1998. Ram was an early member of the executive team at Netscape Communications Corporation. Ram is also on the board of trustees of Stanford University. Ram holds a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics from the University of Madras, India.

Shirley M. Tilghman has served as a member of our board of directors since October 2005. Shirley served as the President of Princeton University from June 2001 to July 2013. Shirley also serves as a trustee of the Advantage Testing Foundation, Amherst College, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, and the Leadership for a Diverse America. From August 1986 to June 2001, she served as a Professor at Princeton University, and from August 1988 to June 2001, as an Investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In 1998, she took the role as founding director of Princeton’s multi-disciplinary Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics. Shirley holds a Doctoral degree in biochemistry from Temple University, and a Bachelor of Science degree with honors in chemistry from Queen’s University.

Google locations

We’ve come a long way from the dorm room and the garage. We moved into our headquarters in Mountain View, California—better known as the Googleplex—in 2004. Today Google has more than 70 offices in more than 40 countries around the globe.
Though no two Google offices are the same, visitors to any office can expect to find a few common features: murals and decorations expressing local personality; Googlers sharing cubes, yurts and "huddles"; video games, pool tables and pianos; cafes and "microkitchens" stocked with healthy food; and good old fashioned whiteboards for spur-of-the-moment brainstorming.

United States
Google Inc.

1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone: +1 650-253-0000
Fax: +1 650-253-0001

Google Ann Arbor
201 S. Division St.
Suite 500
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Phone: +1 734-332-6500
Fax: +1 734-332-6501

Google Atlanta
Millennium at Midtown
10 10th Street NE
Suite 600
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone: +1 404-487-9000
Fax: +1 404-487-9001

Google Austin
9606 North MoPac Expressway
Suite 700
Austin, TX 78759
Phone: +1 512-343-5283
Fax: +1 512-343-5285

Google Boulder
2590 Pearl Street
Suite 100
Boulder, CO 80302
Phone: +1 303-245-0086
Fax: +1 303-535-5592

Google Boston
5 Cambridge Center, Floors 3-6
Cambridge, MA 02142
Phone: +1 617-575-1300
Fax: +1 617-575-1301

Google Chicago
20 West Kinzie St.
Chicago, IL 60654
Phone: +1 312-840-4100
Fax: +1 312-840-4101

Google Detroit
114 Willits Street
Birmingham, MI 48009
Phone: +1 248-593-4000
Fax: +1 248-593-4001

Google Irvine
19540 Jamboree Road
2nd Floor
Irvine, CA 92612
Phone: +1 949-794-1600
Fax: +1 949-794-1601

Google Kirkland
747 6th Street South,
Kirkland, WA 98033
Phone: +1 425-739-5600
Fax: +1 425-968-9399

Google Los Angeles
340 Main Street
Los Angeles, CA 90291
Phone: +1 310-310-6000
Fax: +1 310-310-6001

Google Madison (US-MSN-10NL)
The Constellation
10 North Livingston St.
2nd Floor
Madison, WI 53703
Phone: +1 608-669-9600
Fax: +1 608-669-9601

Google New York
76 Ninth Avenue
4th Floor
New York, NY 10011
Phone: +1 212-565-0000
Fax: +1 212-565-0001

Google New York
Chelsea Market Space
(mail cannot be received at this address)
75 Ninth Avenue
2nd and 4th Floors
New York, NY 10011
Phone: +1 212-565-0000
Fax: +1 212-565-0001

Google Pittsburgh
6425 Penn Ave.
Suite 700
Pittsburgh, PA 15206
Phone: +1 412-345-6700
Fax: +1 412-345-6699

Google Reston
1818 Library Street
Suite 400
Reston, VA 20190
Phone: +1 202-370-5600
Fax: +1 202-370-5601

Google San Francisco
345 Spear Street
Floors 2-4
San Francisco, CA 94105
Phone: +1 415-736-0000

Google Seattle
651 N. 34th St.
Seattle, WA 98103
Phone: +1 206-876-1800
Fax: +1 206-876-1701

Google Washington DC
1101 New York Avenue, N.W.
Second Floor
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: +1 202-346-1100

Asia Pacific

Google Sydney
Google Australia Pty Ltd.
Level 5, 48 Pirrama Road,
Pyrmont, NSW 2009
Phone: +61 2 9374 4000
Fax: +61 2 9374 4001

China Mainland
Google Beijing

Tsinghua Science Park Bldg 6
No. 1 Zhongguancun East Road
Haidian District
Beijing 100084
Phone: +86-10-62503000
Fax: +86-10-62503001

Google Guangzhou
L30, Unit 3007, Teemtower, Teemmall,
208 Tianhe Road, Tianhe District,
Guangzhou, 510620

Google Shanghai
60F, Shanghai World Financial Center
100 Century Avenue, Pudong New Area
Shanghai 200120, China
Phone: +86-21-6133-7666
Fax: +86-21-6133-7205

Hong Kong
Google Hong Kong

Suite 2501
Tower 2, Times Square
1 Matheson Street,
Causeway Bay, Hong Kong
Phone: +852-3923-5400
Fax: +852-3923-5401India

Google Bangalore

Google India Pvt. Ltd
No. 3, RMZ Infinity - Tower E
Old Madras Road
3rd, 4th, and 5th Floors
Bangalore, 560 016
Phone: +91-80-67218000

Google Gurgaon
Google India Pvt Ltd
8th and 9th Floors
Tower C Building No.8
DLF Cyber City
Gurgaon India 122002
Phone: +91-12-44512900

Google Hyderabad
Google India Pvt. Ltd
Block 1
DivyaSree Omega
Survey No. 13
Kondapur Village,
Andhra Pradesh, India
Phone: +91-40-6619-3000

Google Mumbai
Google India Pvt Ltd
1st Floor
3 North Avenue
Maker Maxity
Bandra Kurla Complex
Bandra East
Mumbai, 400 051
Phone: +91-22-6611-7150

Google Japan

Roppongi Hills Mori Tower
PO Box 22, 6-10-1 Roppongi
Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-6126
Phone: +81-3-6384-9000
Fax: +81-3-6384-9001

Google Seoul

Google Korea LLC.
22nd Floor, Gangnam Finance Center
152 Teheran-ro, Gangnam-gu
Seoul 135-984
South Korea
Phone: +82-2-531-9000
Fax: +82-2-531-9001

Google Malaysia Sdn Bhd

Quill 7, No. 9
Jalan Stesen Sentral 5
50470 Kuala Lumpur

New Zealand
Google Auckland
Level 27, PWC Tower
188 Quay Street
Auckland 1010
New Zealand

Google Singapore

Google Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.
8 Marina View
Asia Square 1 #30-01
Singapore 018960
Phone: +65 6521-8000
Fax: +65 6521-8901

Google Taipei

Level 73, Taipei 101 Tower
7 Xinyi Road, Sec. 5, Taipei, 110
Phone: 886 2 8729 6000
Fax: 886 2 8729 6001

Google (Thailand) Company Limited

14th Floor, Park Ventures Ecoplex
57 Wireless Road
Bangkok 10330


Google Kenya Ltd.

7th Floor, Purshottam Place
Westlands Road,
P.O. Box 66217 - 00800
Nairobi, Kenya
Phone: +254 20 360 1000
Fax: +254 20 360 1100

Google Ghana
GNAT Heights
30 Independence Ave
North Ridge, Accra

Google Nigeria

3rd Floor, Mulliner Towers
39 Kingsway Road, Ikoyi
Lagos, Nigeria

Google Senegal
Immeuble Azur 15
12 Boulevard Djily MBAYE
BP 50555 Dakar, Senegal

South Africa
Google South Africa
Ground Floor, Twickenham Building
The Campus
Cnr Main & Sloane Street
Bryanston, Johannesburg
02021 South Africa

Google Uganda

CourseView Towers, 7th Floor,
Plot 21, Yusuf Lule Road


Google Belgium n.v.

Chaussée d'Etterbeek 176-180
Etterbeeksesteenweg 176-180
1040 Brussels

Czech Republic
Google Prague

Stroupežnického 3191/17
150 00 Prague 5
Czech Republic

Google Aarhus

Google Denmark ApS
Aabogade 15
8200 Aarhus N

Google Copenhagen
Google Denmark ApS
Sankt Petri Passage 5, 2nd floor
1165 Copenhagen K

Google Helsinki

Google Finland Oy

Google Oulu
Google Finland Oy
Kiviharjunlenkki 1 B
90220 Oulu

Google Paris

8 Rue de Londres
75009 Paris
Phone: +33 (0)1 42 68 53 00
Fax: +33 (0) 1 42 68 53 01

Google Hamburg

Google Germany GmbH
ABC-Strasse 19
20354 Hamburg
Phone: +49 40-80-81-79-000
Fax: +49 40-4921-9194

Google Munich
Google Germany GmbH
Dienerstrasse 12
80331 Munich

Google Athens

7 Fragoklissias St, 2nd floor
Athens 151 25, Greece

Google Budapest

Árpád Fejedelem útja 26-28.
Budapest, Hungary 1023

Google Dublin

Google Ireland Ltd.
Gordon House
Barrow Street
Dublin 4
Fax: +353 (1) 436 1001

Google Italy

Corso Europa 2
20122 Milan
Phone: +39 02-36618 300
Fax: +39 02-36618 301

Google Amsterdam
Claude Debussylaan 34
Vinoly Mahler 4
Toren B, 15th Floor
Amsterdam, Netherlands
1082 MD, Netherlands
Phone: +31 (0)20-5045-100
Fax: +31 (0)20-524-8150

Google Oslo
Google Norway AS
Henrik Ibsens gate 100
0255 Oslo
Phone: +47 23001238
Fax: +47 23001231

Google Kraków

Rynek Glowny 12, II floor
31-042 Kraków
Phone: +48 (12) 68 15 300
Fax: +48 (12) 68 15 362

Google Warsaw
Warsaw Financial Center
Emilii Plater 53
00-113 Warszawa
Phone: +48 22 207 19 00
Fax: +48 22 207 19 30

Google Wrocław
Bema Plaza, V pietro
Plac Gen. Jozefa Bema nr 2
50-265 Wroclaw
Phone: +48 (71) 73 41 000
Fax: +48 (71) 73 41 051

Google Portugal

Avenida da Liberdade, 110
1269-046 Lisboa, Portugal

Russian Federation
Google Moscow

OOO Google
7 Balchug st.
Moscow 115035
Russian Federation
Phone: +7-495-644-1400
Fax: +7-495-644-1401

Google St. Petersburg
Alia Tempora
ul. Mayakovskogo Bldg 3B
Floors 8-9
Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation,
Phone: +7 (812) 313-4800
Fax: +7 (812) 313-4801

Google Madrid

Torre Picasso
Plaza Pablo Ruiz Picasso 1
Madrid 28020
Phone: +34 91-748-6400
Fax: +34 91-748-6402

Google Stockholm

Google Sweden AB
Kungsbron 2
111 22 Stockholm

Google Zürich
Brandschenkestrasse 110
8002 Zürich
Phone: +41 44-668-1800
Fax: +41 44-668-1818

Google Ukraine
25B, Sagaydachnogo str.
Kyiv 04070

United Kingdom
Google London

Google UK Ltd
Belgrave House
76 Buckingham Palace Road
London SW1W 9TQ
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 (0)20-7031-3000
Fax: +44 (0)20-7031-3001

Google London
Google UK Ltd
123 Buckingham Palace Road
London SW1W 9SH
United Kingdom

Google London
Google UK Ltd
1-13 St Giles High Street
London WC2H 8AG
United Kingdom

Google Manchester
Google UK Ltd
Peter House
Oxford Street
M1 5AN

Google Montreal

1253 McGill College
Montreal, Quebec, H3B 2Y5
Phone: +1 514-670-8700
Fax: +1 514-670-8701

Google Toronto
12th Floor
111 Richmond Street West
Toronto, Ontario M5B 2G4
Phone: +1 416-915-8200
Fax: +1 416-915-8201

Google Waterloo
151 Charles Street West
Suite 200
Kitchener, Ontario, N2G 1H6
Phone: +1 519-880-2300
Fax: +1 519-880-3401

Latin America

Google Buenos Aires

Dock del Plata
Alicia Moreau de Justo 350, 2nd floor
Buenos Aires, C1107AAH
Phone: +54-11-5530-3000
Fax: +54-11-5530-3001

Google Belo Horizonte
Google Brasil Internet LTDA
Av. Bias Fortes
nº 382 6th floor, Lourdes
Belo Horizonte
Phone: +55-31-2128-6800
Fax: +55-31-2128-6801

Google Sao Paulo (BR-SAO-PMA)
Google Brasil Internet Ltda.
Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 3477 - 18º andar
São Paulo, 04538-133
Fax: +55-11-2395-8401

Google Colombia

Carrera 11A #94-45, Floor 8th
Bogotá, Colombia
Phone: +57 (1) 5939400
Fax: +57 (1) 5939401

Google Mexico

Paseo de la Reforma #115, Piso 22
Col. Lomas de Chapultepec
México D.F. 11000, México
Phone: +52 55-5342-8400
Fax: +52 55-5342-8401

Middle East

Google Egypt LLC

47 Office Building
Section 1
City Centre
New Cairo

Google Haifa

Building 30
MATAM, Advanced Technology Center
PO Box 15096
Haifa, 3190500
Phone: 972-74-746-6245
Fax: 972-74-746-6201

Google Tel Aviv
Google Israel Ltd.
98 Yigal Alon St.
Electra Tower, Floor 29
Tel-Aviv, 6789141
Phone: 972-74-746-6453
Fax: 972-3-761-7171

Google Istanbul

Google Advertising and Marketing Ltd Sti
Tekfen Tower
Buyukdere Caddesi No: 209 Kat:9
34394 Istanbul

United Arab Emirates
Google UAE

Dubai Internet City
Building 4, office 306
P.O Box 502966
Phone: +971 4 4509500
Fax: +971 4 4509523

Great Google  products and services

We provide a variety of services for people and businesses. Here's a glimpse at what we offer.

What we do for you

Larry Page, our co-founder and CEO, once described the “perfect search engine” as something that “understands exactly what you mean and gives you back exactly what you want.” Since he spoke those words Google has grown to offer products beyond search, but the spirit of what he said remains. With all our technologies—from search to Chrome to Gmail—our goal is to make it as easy as possible for you to find the information you need and get the things you need to do done.
This means making search smarter and faster, so it can understand that when you type [jaguar] you’re looking for the car, not photos of the animal. It means showing you when your friends like an ad or a search result, so that you know it might be valuable. It means making our products work intuitively, so that you can share documents with Gmail contacts without having to copy and paste, and open the same tabs on your Android phone that you have open on your Chrome browser on your desktop. Above all, it means making our products work better so that people can spend time on the stuff they’re good at—like enjoying time with family, camping in the wilderness, painting a picture or throwing a party. We’re not there yet, but we’re working on it.
Find a list of all our products »

What we do for businesses

We provide a variety of tools to help businesses of all kinds succeed on and off the web. These programs form the backbone of our own business; they’ve also enabled entrepreneurs and publishers around the world to grow theirs. Our advertising programs, which range from simple text ads to rich media ads, help businesses find customers, and help publishers make money off of their content. We also provide cloud computing tools for businesses that save money and help organizations be more productive.

What we do for the web

We build products that we hope will make the web better—and therefore your experience on the web better. With products like Chrome and Android, we want to make it simpler and faster for people to do what they want to online. We’re also committed to the open web, so we’re involved in various projects to make it easier for developers to contribute to the online ecosystem and move the web forward. And we work hard to create a web that’s better for the environment, by using resources efficiently and supporting renewable power. The web has evolved enormously since Google first appeared on the scene, but one thing that hasn't changed is our belief in the endless possibilities of the Internet itself.

Google Opens Office

Mike Orgill
Photo by Saman Kariyawasam
Google, the US based multi billion dollar internet search engine established an office in Sri Lanka this year.
When this reporter asked Google Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.’s Country Lead Public Policy & Government Relations’ Mike Orgill the reason behind this move? He said that it was for business as well as of other users in Sri Lanka to get more value.
Orgill said that it was also in the current year they established an office in Indonesia, while last year they established offices in Malaysia and Thailand.
Google moved over to Singapore as late as in 2007, though they have been serving in Japan and India for quite a while.
Google’s services in China however have been marred by censorship by Beijing.
Google also has offices across Europe.
Orgill attributed Google’s success to its mission which says, “To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.”

1998: Garage days

1998: Garage days
Photo: William Mercer McLeod

Larry Page and Sergey Brin accept a $100,000 check from Sun Microsystems co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim and incorporate Google Inc. on Sept. 7. The Stanford University graduate students work from a suburban garage (pictured right) in Menlo Park, Calif., for six months.
Did you know? Google hosted its first data center in a rented 7' x 8' room.
Employees: Less than 10

Artist’s rendering of the “Google Barge”. Image Courtesy of The Verge

Google’s Showroom of Floating Shipping Containers

We might be seeing a lot more innovation in retail design.

About Android

Ice Cream Sandwich
Welcome to Android 4.0!
Android 4.0 delivers a refined, unified UI for phones and tablets and introduces innovative features for users and developers. This document provides a glimpse of the many new features and technologies that make Android 4.0 simple, beautiful, and beyond smart.
  • Android 4.0 for Users
  • Android 4.0 for Developers

Android 4.0 for Users

Simple, beautiful, beyond smart
Android 4.0 builds on the things people love most about Android — easy multitasking, rich notifications, customizable home screens, resizable widgets, and deep interactivity — and adds powerful new ways of communicating and sharing.

Refined, evolved UI
Focused on bringing the power of Android to the surface, Android 4.0 makes common actions more visible and lets users navigate with simple, intuitive gestures. Refinedanimations and feedback throughout the system make interactions engaging and interesting. An entirely new typeface optimized for high-resolution screens improves readability and brings a polished, modern feel to the user interface.
Virtual buttons in the System Bar let users navigate instantly to Back, Home, and Recent Apps. The System Bar and virtual buttons are present across all apps, but can be dimmed by applications for full-screen viewing. Users can access each application's contextual options in the Action Bar, displayed at the top (and sometimes also at the bottom) of the screen.
Multitasking is a key strength of Android and it's made even easier and more visual on Android 4.0. The Recent Apps button lets users jump instantly from one task to another using the list in the System Bar. The list pops up to show thumbnail images of apps used recently — tapping a thumbnail switches to the app.
The Recent Apps list makes multitasking simple.
Jump to the camera or see notifications without unlocking.
For incoming calls, you can respond instantly by text.

Rich and interactive notifications let users keep in constant touch with incoming messages, play music tracks, see real-time updates from apps, and much more. On smaller-screen devices, notifications appear at the top of the screen, while on larger-screen devices they appear in the System Bar.

The All Apps launcher (left) and resizable widgets (right) give you apps and rich content from the home screen.

Home screen folders and favorites tray
New home screen folders offer a new way for users to group their apps and shortcuts logically, just by dragging one onto another. Also, in All Apps launcher, users can now simply drag an app to get information about it or immediately uninstall it, or disable a pre-installed app.
On smaller-screen devices, the home screen now includes a customizable favorites tray visible from all home screens. Users can drag apps, shortcuts, folders, and other priority items in or out of the favorites tray for instant access from any home screen.

Resizable widgets
Home screens in Android 4.0 are designed to be content-rich and customizable. Users can do much more than add shortcuts — they can embed live application content directly through interactive widgets. Widgets let users check email, flip through a calendar, play music, check social streams, and more — right from the home screen, without having to launch apps. Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or shrink them to save space.

New lock screen actions
The lock screens now let users do more without unlocking. From the slide lock screen, users can jump directly to the camera for a picture or pull down the notifications window to check for messages. When listening to music, users can even manage music tracks and see album art.

Quick responses for incoming calls
When an incoming call arrives, users can now quickly respond by text message, without needing to pick up the call or unlock the device. On the incoming call screen, users simply slide a control to see a list of text responses and then tap to send and end the call. Users can add their own responses and manage the list from the Settings app.

Swipe to dismiss notifications, tasks, and browser tabs
Android 4.0 makes managing notifications, recent apps, and browser tabs even easier. Users can now dismiss individual notifications, apps from the Recent Apps list, and browser tabs with a simple swipe of a finger.
A spell-checker lets you find errors and fix them faster.
A powerful voice input engine lets you dictate continously.

Improved text input and spell-checking
The soft keyboard in Android 4.0 makes text input even faster and more accurate. Error correction and word suggestion are improved through a new set of default dictionaries and more accurate heuristics for handling cases such as double-typed characters, skipped letters, and omitted spaces. Word suggestion is also improved and the suggestion strip is simplified to show only three words at a time.
To fix misspelled words more easily, Android 4.0 adds a spell-checker that locates and underlines errors and suggests replacement words. With one tap, users can choose from multiple spelling suggestions, delete a word, or add it to the dictionary. Users can even tap to see replacement suggestions for words that are spelled correctly. For specialized features or additional languages, users can now download and install third-party dictionaries, spell-checkers, and other text services.

Powerful voice input engine
Android 4.0 introduces a powerful new voice input engine that offers a continuous "open microphone" experience and streaming voice recognition. The new voice input engine lets users dictate the text they want, for as long as they want, using the language they want. Users can speak continously for a prolonged time, even pausing for intervals if needed, and dictate punctuation to create correct sentences. As the voice input engine enters text, it underlines possible dictation errors in gray. After dictating, users can tap the underlined words to quickly replace them from a list of suggestions.
Data usage controls let you monitor total usage by network type and application and then set limits if needed.

Control over network data
Mobile devices can make extensive use of network data for streaming content, synchronizing data, downloading apps, and more. To meet the needs of users withtiered or metered data plans, Android 4.0 adds new controls for managing network data usage.
In the Settings app, colorful charts show the total data usage on each network type (mobile or Wi-Fi), as well as amount of data used by each running application. Based on their data plans, users can optionally set warning levels or hard limits on data usage or disable mobile data altogether. Users can also manage the background data used by individual applications as needed.

Designed for accessibility
A variety of new features greatly enhance the accessibility of Android 4.0 for blind or visually impaired users. Most important is a new explore-by-touch mode that lets users navigate without having to see the screen. Touching the screen once triggers audible feedback that identifies the UI component below; a second touch in the same component activates it with a full touch event. The new mode is especially important to support users on new devices that use virtual buttons in the System Bar, rather than dedicated hardware buttons or trackballs. Also, standard apps are updated to offer an improved accessibility experience. The Browser supports a script-based screen reader for reading favorite web content and navigating sites. For improved readability, users can also increase the default font size used across the system.
The accessibility experience begins at first setup — a simple touch gesture during setup (clockwise square from upper left) activates all accessibility features and loads a setup tutorial. Once accessibility features are active, everything visible on the screen can be spoken aloud by the standard screen reader.

Communication and sharing

Contacts and profiles are integrated across apps and social networks, for a consistent, personal experience everywhere — from incoming calls to emails.
Designed for the way people live, Android 4.0 integrates rich social communication and sharing touchpoints across the system, making it easy to talk, email, text, and share.

People and profiles
Throughout the system, a user’s social groups, profiles, and contacts are linked together and integrated for easy accessibility. At the center is a newPeople app that offers richer profile information, including a large profile picture, phone numbers, addresses and accounts, status updates, events, stream items, and a new button for connecting on integrated social networks.
The user's own contact information is stored in a new "Me" profile, allowing easier sharing with apps and people. All of the user's integrated contacts are displayed in an easy to manage list, including controls over which contacts are shown from any integrated account or social network. Wherever the user navigates across the system, tapping a profile photo displays Quick Contacts, with large profile pictures, shortcuts to phone numbers, text messaging, and more.

Unified calendar, visual voicemail
To help organize appointments and events, an updated Calendar app brings together personal, work, school, and social agendas. With user permission, other applications can contribute events to the calendar and manage reminders, for an integrated view across multiple calendar providers. The app is redesigned to let users manage events more easily. Calendars are color-coded and users can swipe left or right to change dates and pinch to zoom in or out agendas.
In the phone app, a new visual voicemail features integrates incoming messages, voice transcriptions, and audio files from one or more providers. Third-party applications can integrate with the Phone app to add their own voice messages, transcriptions, and more to the visual voicemail inbox.

Capture the picture you want, edit, and share instantly.

Rich and versatile camera capabilities
The Camera app includes many new features that let users capture special moments with great photos and videos. After capturing images, they can edit and share them easily with friends.
When taking pictures, continuous focuszero shutter lag exposure, and decreased shot-to-shot speed help capture clear, precise images. Stabilized image zoom lets users compose photos and video in the way they want, including while video is recording. For new flexibility and convenience while shooting video, users can now take snapshots at full video resolution just by tapping the screen as video continues to record.
To make it easier to take great pictures of people, built-in face detectionlocates faces in the frame and automatically sets focus. For more control, users can tap to focus anywhere in the preview image.
For capturing larger scenes, the Camera introduces a single-motion panorama mode. In this mode, the user starts an exposure and then slowly turns the Camera to encompass as wide a perspective as needed. The Camera assembles the full range of continuous imagery into a single panoramic photo.
After taking a picture or video, users can quickly share it by email, text message, bluetooth, social networks, and more, just by tapping the thumbnail in the camera controls.

A Photo Gallery widget on the home screen.

Redesigned Gallery app with photo editor
The Gallery app now makes it easier to manage, show, and share photos and videos. For managing collections, a redesigned album layout shows many more albums and offers larger thumbnails. There are many ways to sort albums, including by time, location, people, and tags. To help pictures look their best, the Gallery now includes a powerful photo editor. Users can crop and rotate pictures, set levels, remove red eyes, add effects, and much more. After retouching, users can select one or multiple pictures or videos to share instantly over email, text messaging, bluetooth, social networks, or other apps.
An improved Picture Gallery widget lets users look at pictures directly on their home screen. The widget can display pictures from a selected album, shuffle pictures from all albums, or show a single image. After adding the widget to the home screen, users can flick through the photo stacks to locate the image they want, then tap to load it in Gallery.
Live Effects let you change backgrounds and use Silly Faces during video.

Live Effects for transforming video
Live Effects is a collection of graphical transformations that add interest and fun to videos captured in the Camera app. For example, users can change the background behind them to any stock or custom image, for just the right setting when shooting videeo. Also available for video is Silly Faces, a set of morphing effects that use state-of-the-art face recognition and GPU filters to transform facial features. For example, you can use effects such as small eyes, big mouth, big nose, face squeeze, and more. Outside of the Camera app, Live Effects is available during video chat in the Google Talk app.
Snapping a screenshot.

Sharing with screenshots
Users can now share what's on their screens more easily by taking screenshots. Hardware buttons let them snap a screenshot and store it locally. Afterward, they can view, edit, and share the screen shot in Gallery or a similar app.

Cloud-connected experience

The Browser tabs menu (left) lets you quickly switch browser tabs. The options menu (right) gives you new ways to manage your browsing experience.
Benchmark comparisons of Android Browser.
Android has always been cloud-connected, letting users browse the web and sync photos, apps, games, email, and contacts — wherever they are and across all of their devices. Android 4.0 adds new browsing and email capabilities to let users take even more with them and keep communication organized.

Powerful web browsing
The Android Browser offers an experience that’s as rich and convenient as a desktop browser. It lets users instantly sync and manage Google Chrome bookmarks from all of their accounts, jump to their favorite content faster, and even save it for reading later in case there's no network available.
To get the most out of web content, users can now request fulldesktop versions of web sites, rather than their mobile versions. Users can set their preference for web sites separately for eachbrowser tab. For longer content, users can save a copy for offline reading. To find and open saved pages, users can browse a visual list that’s included with browser bookmarks and history. For better readability and accessibility, users can increase the browser’s zoom levels and override the system default text sizes.
Across all types of content, the Android Browser offers dramatically improved page rendering performance through updated versions of the WebKit core and the V8 Crankshaft compilation engine for JavaScript. In benchmarks run on a Nexus S device, the Android 4.0 browser showed an improvement of nearly 220% over the Android 2.3 browser in the V8 Benchmark Suite and more than 35% in the SunSpider 9.1 JavaScript Benchmark. When run on a Galaxy Nexus device, the Android 4.0 browser showed improvement of nearly 550% in the V8 benchmark and nearly 70% in the SunSpider benchmark.
Improved email
In Android 4.0, email is easier to send, read, and manage. For composing email, improved auto-completion of recipients helps with finding and adding frequent contacts more quickly. For easier input of frequent text, users can now createquick responses and store them in the app, then enter them from a convenient menu when composing. When replying to a message, users can now toggle the message to Reply All and Forward without changing screens.
For easier browsing across accounts and labels, the app adds an integrated menu of accounts and recent labels. To help users locate and organize IMAP and Exchange email, the Email app now supports nested mail subfolders, each with synchronization rules. Users can also search across folders on the server, for faster results.
For enterprises, the Email app supports EAS v14. It supports EAS certificate authentication, provides ABQ strings for device type and mode, and allows automatic sync to be disabled while roaming. Administrators can also limit attachment size or disable attachments.
For keeping track of incoming email more easily, a resizable Email widget lets users flick through recent email right from the home screen, then jump into the Email app to compose or reply.
Android Beam lets users share what they are using with a single tap.

Android is continously driving innovation forward, pushing the boundaries of communication and sharing with new capabilities and interactions.

Android Beam for NFC-based sharing
Android Beam is an innovative, convenient feature for sharing across two NFC-enabled devices, It lets people instantly exchange favorite apps, contacts, music, videos — almost anything. It’s incredibly simple and convenient to use — there’s no menu to open, application to launch, or pairing needed. Just touch one Android-powered phone to another, then tap to send.
For sharing apps, Android Beam pushes a link to the app's details page in Google Play. On the other device, the Google Play client app launches and loads the details page, for easy downloading of the app. Individual apps can build on Android Beam to add other types of interactions, such as passing game scores, initiating a multiplayer game or chat, and more.

Face recognition lets you unlock your phone with your face.

Face Unlock
Android 4.0 introduces a completely new approach to securing a device, making each person's device even more personal — Face Unlock is a new screen-lock option that lets users unlock their devices with their faces. It takes advantage of the device front-facing camera and state-of-the-art facial recognition technology to register a face during setup and then to recognize it again when unlocking the device. Users just hold their devices in front of their faces to unlock, or use a backup PIN or pattern.

Wi-Fi P2P and Bluetooth HDP
Support for Wi-Fi peer-to-peer (P2P) lets users connect directly to nearby peer devices over Wi-Fi, for more reliable, higher-speed communication (in compliance with the Wi-Fi Alliance'sWi-Fi Direct™ certification program). No internet connection or tethering is needed. Through third-party apps, users can connect to compatible devices to take advantage of new features such as instant sharing of files, photos, or other media; streaming video or audio from another device; or connecting to compatible printers or other devices.
Android 4.0 also introduces built-in support for connecting to Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP) devices. With support from third-party apps, users can connect to wireless medical devices and sensors in hospitals, fitness centers, homes, and elsewhere.

New Developer Features

Unified UI framework for phones, tablets, and more
Android 4.0 brings a unified UI framework that lets developers create elegant, innovative apps for phones, tablets, and more. It includes all of the familiar Android 3.x interface elements and APIs — fragments, content loaders, Action Bar, rich notifications, resizable home screen widgets, and more — as well as new elements and APIs.
For developers, the unified UI framework in Android 4.0 means new UI tools, consistent design practices, simplified code and resources, and streamlined development across the range of Android-powered devices.

Key Honeycomb developer features, 
now for phones too

Core UI

  • Fragments and content loaders
  • Resizeable home screen widgets
  • Rich notifications
  • Multi-selection, drag-drop, clipboard
  • Improved screen-support API
  • Hardware-accelerated 2D graphics

Graphics and animation

  • Property-based animation
  • Renderscript 3D graphics

Media and connectivity

  • HTTP Live streaming
  • Bluetooth A2DP and HSP devices
  • Support for RTP
  • MTP/PTP file transfer
  • DRM framework
  • Input from keyboard, mouse, gamepad, joystick


  • Full device encryption
  • DPM policies for encrypted storage and passwords

Communication and sharing
Android 4.0 extends social and sharing features to any application on the device. Applications can integrate contacts, profile data, stream items, and calendar events from any of the user’s activities or social networks.

Social API
A shared social provider and API provide a new unified store for contacts, profile data, stream items, and photos. Any app or social network with user permission can contribute raw contacts and make them accessible to other apps and networks. Applications with user permission can also read profile data from the provider and display it in their applications.
The social API lets applications store standard contact data as well as new types of content for any given contact, including large profile photos, stream items, and recent activity feedback. Recent activity feedback is a standard way for applications to “tag” a contact with common activity, such as when the user calls the contact or sends an email or SMS message. The social provider uses the recent activity feedback as a new signal in ranking, such as for name auto-complete, to keep the most relevant contacts ranked closest to the top.
Applications can also let users set up a social connection to a contact from the People app. When the user touches Add Connection in a contact, the app sends a public intent that other apps can handle, displaying any UI needed to create the social connection.
Building on the social API, developers can add powerful new interactions that span multiple social networks and contacts sources.

Calendar API
A shared calendar content provider and framework API make it easier for developers to add calendar services to their apps.
With user permission, any application can add events to the shared database and manage dates, attendees, alerts, and reminders. Applications can also read entries from the database, including events contributed by other applications, and handle the display of event alerts and reminders. Using the calendar provider, applications can take advantage of event data sourced from a variety of apps and protocols, to offer innovative ways of viewing and managing a user’s events. Apps can also use calendar data to improve the relevance of their other content.
For lighter-weight access to calendar services, the Calendar app defines a set of public Intents for creating, viewing, and editing events. Rather than needing to implement a calendar UI and integrate directly with the calendar provider, applications can simply broadcast calendar Intents. When the Calendar app receives the Intents, it launches the appropriate UI and stores any event data entered. Using calendar Intents, for example, apps can let users add events directly from lists, dialogs, or home screen widgets, such as for making restaurant reservations or booking time with friends
Visual voicemail API
A shared Voicemail provider and API allow developers to build applications that contribute to a unified voicemail store. Voicemails are displayed and played in the call log tab of the platform’s Phone app.

Android Beam
Android Beam is an NFC-based feature that lets users instantly share information about the apps they are using, just by touching two NFC-enabled phones together. When the devices are in range — within a few centimeters — the system sets up an NFC connection and displays a sharing UI. To share whatever they are viewing with the other device, users just touch the screen.
For developers, Android Beam is a new way of triggering almost any type of proximity-based interaction. For example, it can let users instantly exchange contacts, set up multiplayer gaming, join a chat or video call, share a photo or video, and more. The system provides the low-level NFC support and the sharing UI, while the foreground app provides lightweight data to transfer to the other device. Developers have complete control over the data that is shared and how it is handled, so almost any interaction is possible. For larger payloads, developers can even use Android Beam to initiate a connection and transfer the data over Bluetooth, without the need for user-visible pairing.
Even if developers do not add custom interactions based on Android Beam they can still benefit from it being deeply integrated into Android. By default the system shares the app’s Google Play URL, so it’s easy for the user to download or purchase the app right away.

Modular sharing widget
The UI framework includes a new widget, ShareActionProvider, that lets developers quickly embed standard share functionality and UI in the Action Bar of their applications. Developers simply add ShareActionProvider to the menu and set an intent that describes the desired sharing action. The system handles the rest, building up the list of applications that can handle the share intent and dispatching the intent when the user chooses from the menu.

New media capabilities

Low-level streaming multimedia
Android 4.0 provides a direct, efficient path for low-level streaming multimedia. The new path is ideal for applications that need to maintain complete control over media data before passing it to the platform for presentation. For example, media applications can now retrieve data from any source, apply proprietary encryption/decryption, and then send the data to the platform for display.
Applications can now send processed data to the platform as a multiplexed stream of audio/video content in MPEG-2 transport stream format. The platform de-muxes, decodes, and renders the content. The audio track is rendered to the active audio device, while the video track is rendered to either a Surface or a SurfaceTexture. When rendering to a SurfaceTexture, the application can apply subsequent graphics effects to each frame using OpenGL.
To support this low-level streaming, the platform introduces a new native API based on Khronos OpenMAX AL 1.0.1. The API is implemented on the same underlying services as the platform’s existing OpenSL ES API, so developers can make use of both APIs together if needed. Tools support for low-level streaming multimedia will be available in an upcoming release of the Android NDK.

New camera capabilities
Developers can take advantage of a variety of new camera features in Android 4.0. ZSL exposure, continuous focus, and image zoom let apps capture better still and video images, including during video capture. Apps can even capture full-resolution snapshots while shooting video. Apps can now set custom metering regions in a camera preview, then manage white balance and exposure dynamically for those regions. For easier focusing and image processing, a face-detection service identifies and tracks faces in a preview and returns their screen coordinates.

Media effects for transforming images and video
A set of high-performance transformation filters let developers apply rich effects to any image passed as an OpenGL ES 2.0 texture. Developers can adjust color levels and brightness, change backgrounds, sharpen, crop, rotate, add lens distortion, and apply other effects. The transformations are processed by the GPU, so they are fast enough for processing image frames loaded from disk, camera, or video stream.

Audio remote controls
Android 4.0 adds a new audio remote control API that lets media applications integrate with playback controls that are displayed in a remote view. Media applications can integrate with a remote music playback control that’s built into in the platform’s lock screen, allowing users to control song selection and playback without having to unlock and navigate to the music app.
Using the audio remote control API, any music or media app can register to receive media button events from the remote control and then manage play state accordingly. The application can also supply metadata to the remote control, such as album art or image, play state, track number and description, duration, genre, and more.

New media codecs and containers
Android 4.0 adds support for additional media types and containers to give developers access to the formats they need. For high-quality compressed images, the media framework adds support for WebP content. For video, the framework now supports streaming VP8 content. For streaming multimedia, the framework supports HTTP Live streaming protocol version 3 and encoding of ADTS-contained AAC content. Additionally, developers can now use Matroska containers for Vorbis and VP8 content.

New types of connectivity

Wi-Fi P2P
Developers can use a framework API to discover and connect directly to nearby devices over a high-performance, secure Wi-Fi peer-to-peer (P2P) connection. No internet connection or hotspot is needed. Android's Wi-Fi P2P framework complies with the Wi-Fi Alliance's Wi-Fi Direct™ certification program.
Wi-Fi peer-to-peer (P2P) opens new opportunities for developers to add innovative features to their applications. Applications can use Wi-Fi P2P to share files, photos, or other media between devices or between a desktop computer and an Android-powered device. Applications could also use Wi-Fi P2P to stream media content from a peer device such as a digital television or audio player, connect a group of users for gaming, print files, and more.

Bluetooth Health Device Profile (HDP)
Developers can now build powerful medical applications that use Bluetooth to communicate with wireless devices and sensors in hospitals, fitness centers, homes, and elsewhere. Applications can collect and manage data from HDP source devices and transmit it to backend medical applications such as records systems, data analysis services, and others.
Using a framework API, applications can use Bluetooth to discover nearby devices, establish reliable or streaming data channels, and manage data transmission. Applications can supply any IEEE 11073 Manager to retrieve and interpret health data from Continua-certified devices such as heart-rate monitors, blood meters, thermometers, and scales.

New UI components and capabilities

Layout enhancements
A new layout, GridLayout, improves the performance of Android applications by supporting flatter view hierarchies that are faster to layout and render. Because hierarchies are flatter, developers can also manage alignments between components that are visually related to each other even when they are not logically related, for precise control over application UI. GridLayout is also specifically designed to be configured by drag-and-drop design tools such as the ADT Plug-in for Eclipse.

OpenGL ES texture views
A new TextureView object lets developers directly integrate OpenGL ES textures as rendering targets in a UI hierarchy. The object lets developers display and manipulate OpenGL ES rendering just as they would a normal view object in the hierarchy, including moving, transforming, and animating the view as needed. The TextureView object makes it easy for developers to embed camera preview, decoded video, OpenGL game scenes, and more. TextureView can be viewed as a more powerful version of the existing SurfaceView object, since it offers the same benefits of access to a GL rendering surface, with the added advantage of having that surface participate fully in the normal view hierarchy.

Hardware-accelerated 2D drawing
All Android-powered devices running Android 4.0 are required to support hardware-accelerated 2D drawing. Developers can take advantage of this to add great UI effects while maintaining optimal performance on high-resolution screens, even on phones. For example, developers can rely on accelerated scaling, rotation, and other 2D operations, as well as accelerated UI components such as TextureView and compositing modes such as filtering, blending, and opacity.

New input types and text services

Stylus input, button support, hover events
Android 4.0 includes full support for stylus input events, including tilt and distance axes, pressure, and related motion event properties. To help applications distinguish motion events from different sources, the platform adds distinct tool types for stylus, finger, mouse, and eraser. For improved input from multi-button pointing devices, the platform now provides distinct primary, secondary, and tertiary buttons, as well as back and forward buttons. Hover-enter and hover-exit events are also added, for improved navigation and accessibility. Developers can build on these new input features to add powerful interactions to their apps, such as precise drawing and gesturing, handwriting and shape recognition, improved mouse input, and others.

Text services API for integrating spelling checkers
Android 4.0 lets applications query available text services such as dictionaries and spell checkers for word suggestions, corrections, and similar data. The text services are external to the active IME, so developers can create and distribute dictionaries and suggestion engines that plug into the platform. When an application receives results from a text service — for example, word suggestions — it can display them in a dedicated suggestion popup window directly inside the text view, rather than relying on the IME to display them.

Enhanced accessibility APIs
Android 4.0 adds new accessibility features and an enhanced API to let developers improve the user experience in their apps, especially on devices that don’t have hardware buttons. For accessibility services such as screen readers in particular, the platform offers new APIs to query window content, for easier navigation, better feedback, and richer user interfaces.

Accessibility API
To let applications manage interactions more effectively when accessibility features are enabled, the platform adds accessibility events for explore-by-touch mode, scrolling, and text selection. For these and other events, the platform can attach a new object called an accessibility record that provides extra information about the event context.
Using the accessibility record and related APIs, applications can now access the view hierarchy associated with an event. Applications can query for key properties such as parent and child nodes, available states, supported actions, screen position, and more. Applications can also request changes to certain properties to help manage focus and selected state. For example, an accessibility service could use these new capabilities to add convenient features such as screen-search by text.

Text-to-speech API
A new framework API lets developers write text-to-speech engines and make them available to any app requesting TTS capabilities.

Efficient network usage
In Android 4.0, users can see how much network data their running apps are using. They can also set limits on data usage by network type and disable background data usage for specific applications. In this context, developers need to design their apps to run efficiently and follow best practices for checking the network connection. Android 4.0 provides network APIs to let applications meet those goals.
As users move between networks or set limits on network data, the platform lets applications query for connection type and availability. Developers can use this information to dynamically manage network requests to ensure the best experience for users. Developers can also build custom network and data-usage options into their apps, then expose them to users directly from Settings by means of a new system Intent.

Security for apps and content

Secure management of credentials
Android 4.0 makes it easier for applications to manage authentication and secure sessions. A new keychain API and underlying encrypted storage let applications store and retrieve private keys and their corresponding certificate chains. Any application can use the keychain API to install and store user certificates and CAs securely.

Address Space Layout Randomization
Android 4.0 now provides address space layout randomization (ASLR) to help protect system and third party applications from exploitation due to memory-management issues.

Enhancements for Enterprise

VPN client API
Developers can now build or extend their own VPN solutions on the platform using a new VPN API and underlying secure credential storage. With user permission, applications can configure addresses and routing rules, process outgoing and incoming packets, and establish secure tunnels to a remote server. Enterprises can also take advantage of a standard VPN client built into the platform that provides access to L2TP and IPSec protocols.

Device policy management for camera
The platform adds a new policy control for administrators who manage devices using an installed Device Policy Manager. Administrators can now remotely disable the camera on a managed device for users working in sensitive environments.

About Android Jelly Bean

Jelly Bean

Android 4.3 on phone and tablet
Welcome to Android 4.3, a sweeter version of Jelly Bean!
Android 4.3 includes performance optimizations and great new features for users and developers. This document provides a glimpse of what's new for developers.
See the Android 4.3 APIs document for a detailed look at the new developer APIs.
Find out more about the new Jelly Bean features for users at

Faster, Smoother, More Responsive

Android 4.3 builds on the performance improvements already included in Jelly Bean — vsync timingtriple bufferingreduced touch latencyCPU input boost, andhardware-accelerated 2D rendering — and adds new optimizations that make Android even faster.

For a graphics performance boost, the hardware-accelerated 2D renderer now optimizes the stream of drawing commands, transforming it into a more efficient GPU format by rearranging and merging draw operations. For multithreaded processing, the renderer can also now use multithreading across multiple CPU cores to perform certain tasks.

Android 4.3 also improves rendering for shapes and text. Shapes such as circles and rounded rectangles are now rendered at higher quality in a more efficient manner. Optimizations for text include increased performance when using multiple fonts or complex glyph sets (CJK), higher rendering quality when scaling text, and faster rendering of drop shadows.

Improved window buffer allocation results in a faster image buffer allocation for your apps, reducing the time taken to start rendering when you create a window.
For highest-performance graphics, Android 4.3 introduces support for OpenGL ES 3.0 and makes it accessible to apps through both framework and native APIs. On supported devices, the hardware accelerated 2D rendering engine takes advantage of OpenGL ES 3.0 to optimize texture management and increase gradient rendering fidelity.

OpenGL ES 3.0 for High-Performance Graphics

Android 4.3 introduces platform support for Khronos OpenGL ES 3.0, providing games and other apps with highest-performance 2D and 3D graphics capabilities on supported devices. You can take advantage of OpenGL ES 3.0 and related EGL extensions using either framework APIs or native API bindings through the Android Native Development Kit (NDK).

Key new functionality provided in OpenGL ES 3.0 includes acceleration of advanced visual effects, high quality ETC2/EAC texture compression as a standard feature, a new version of the GLSL ES shading language with integer and 32-bit floating point support, advanced texture rendering, and standardized texture size and render-buffer formats.

You can use the OpenGL ES 3.0 APIs to create highly complex, highly efficient graphics that run across a range of compatible Android devices, and you can support a single, standard texture-compression format across those devices.

OpenGL ES 3.0 is an optional feature that depends on underlying graphics hardware. Support is already available on Nexus 7 (2013), Nexus 4, and Nexus 10 devices.

Enhanced Bluetooth Connectivity

Connectivity with Bluetooth Smart devices and sensors
Now you can design and build apps that interact with the latest generation of small, low-power devices and sensors that use Bluetooth Smart technology.
Android 4.3 gives you a single, standard API for interacting with Bluetooth Smart devices.
Android 4.3 introduces built-in platform support for Bluetooth Smart Ready in the central role and provides a standard set of APIs that apps can use to discover nearby devices, query for GATT services, and read/write characteristics.
With the new APIs, your apps can efficiently scan for devices and services of interest. For each device, you can check for supported GATT services by UUID and manage connections by device ID and signal strength. You can connect to a GATT server hosted on the device and read or write characteristics, or register a listener to receive notifications whenever those characteristics change.
You can implement support for any GATT profile. You can read or write standard characteristics or add support for custom characteristics as needed. Your app can function as either client or server and can transmit and receive data in either mode. The APIs are generic, so you’ll be able to support interactions with a variety of devices such as proximity tags, watches, fitness meters, game controllers, remote controls, health devices, and more.
Support for Bluetooth Smart Ready is already available on Nexus 7 (2013) and Nexus 4 devices and will be supported in a growing number of Android-compatible devices in the months ahead.

AVRCP 1.3 Profile
Android 4.3 adds built-in support for Bluetooth AVRCP 1.3, so your apps can support richer interactions with remote streaming media devices. Apps such as media players can take advantage of AVRCP 1.3 through the remote control client APIs introduced in Android 4.0. In addition to exposing playback controls on the remote devices connected over Bluetooth, apps can now transmit metadata such as track name, composer, and other types of media metadata.
Platform support for AVRCP 1.3 is built on the Bluedroid Bluetooth stack introduced by Google and Broadcom in Android 4.2. Support is available right away on Nexus devices and other Android-compatible devices that offer A2DP/AVRCP capability.

Support for Restricted Profiles

Setting up a Restricted Profile
A tablet owner can set up one or more restricted profiles in Settings and manage them independently.

Setting Restrictions in a Profile
Your app can offer restrictions to let owners manage your app content when it's running in a profile.

Android 4.3 extends the multiuser feature for tablets withrestricted profiles, a new way to manage users and their capabilities on a single device. With restricted profiles, tablet owners can quickly set up separate environments for each user, with the ability to manage finer-grained restrictions in the apps that are available in those environments. Restricted profiles are ideal for friends and family, guest users, kiosks, point-of-sale devices, and more.
Each restricted profile offers an isolated and secure space with its own local storage, home screens, widgets, and settings. Unlike with users, profiles are created from the tablet owner’s environment, based on the owner’s installed apps and system accounts. The owner controls which installed apps are enabled in the new profile, and access to the owner’s accounts is disabled by default.
Apps that need to access the owner’s accounts — for sign-in, preferences, or other uses — can opt-in by declaring a manifest attribute, and the owner can review and manage those apps from the profile configuration settings.
For developers, restricted profiles offer a new way to deliver more value and control to your users. You can implement app restrictions — content or capabilities controls that are supported by your app — and advertise them to tablet owners in the profile configuration settings.
You can add app restrictions directly to the profile configuration settings using predefined boolean, select, and multi-select types. If you want more flexibility, you can even launch your own UI from profile configuration settings to offer any type of restriction you want.
When your app runs in a profile, it can check for any restrictions configured by the owner and enforce them appropriately. For example, a media app might offer a restriction to let the owner set a maturity level for the profile. At run time, the app could check for the maturity setting and then manage content according to the preferred maturity level.
If your app is not designed for use in restricted profiles, you can opt out altogether, so that your app can't be enabled in any restricted profile.

Optimized Location and Sensor Capabilities

Google Play services offers advanced location APIs that you can use in your apps. Android 4.3 optimizes these APIs on supported devices with new hardware and software capabilities that minimize use of the battery.
Hardware geofencing optimizes for power efficiency by performing location computation in the device hardware, rather than in software. On devices that support hardware geofencing, Google Play services geofence APIs will be able to take advantage of this optimization to save battery while the device is moving.
Wi-Fi scan-only mode is a new platform optimization that lets users keep Wi-Fi scan on without connecting to a Wi-Fi network, to improve location accuracy while conserving battery. Apps that depend on Wi-Fi for location services can now ask users to enable scan-only mode from Wi-Fi advanced settings. Wi-Fi scan-only mode is not dependent on device hardware and is available as part of the Android 4.3 platform.
New sensor types allow apps to better manage sensor readings. A game rotation vector lets game developers sense the device’s rotation without having to worry about magnetic interference. Uncalibrated gyroscope and uncalibrated magnetometer sensors report raw measurements as well as estimated biases to apps.
The new hardware capabilities are already available on Nexus 7 (2013) and Nexus 4 devices, and any device manufacturer or chipset vendor can build them into their devices.

New Media Capabilities

Modular DRM framework
To meet the needs of the next generation of media services, Android 4.3 introduces a modular DRM framework that enables media application developers to more easily integrate DRM into their own streaming protocols, such as MPEG DASH (Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP, ISO/IEC 23009-1).
Through a combination of new APIs and enhancements to existing APIs, the media DRM framework provides anintegrated set of services for managing licensing and provisioning, accessing low-level codecs, and decoding encrypted media data. A new MediaExtractor API lets you get the PSSH metadata for DASH media. Apps using the media DRM framework manage the network communication with a license server and handle the streaming of encrypted data from a content library.

VP8 encoder
Android 4.3 introduces built-in support for VP8 encoding, accessible from framework and native APIs. For apps using native APIs, the platform includes OpenMAX 1.1.2 extension headers to support VP8 profiles and levels. VP8 encoding support includes settings for target bitrate, rate control, frame rate, token partitioning, error resilience, reconstruction and loop filters. The platform API introduces VP8 encoder support in a range of formats, so you can take advantage of the best format for your content.
VP8 encoding is available in software on all compatible devices running Android 4.3. For highest performance, the platform also supports hardware-accelerated VP8 encoding on capable devices.

Video encoding from a surface
Starting in Android 4.3 you can use a surface as the input to a video encoder. For example, you can now direct a stream from an OpenGL ES surface to the encoder, rather than having to copy between buffers.

Media muxer
Apps can use new media muxer APIs to combine elementary audio and video streams into a single output file. Currently apps can multiplex a single MPEG-4 audio stream and a single MPEG-4 video stream into a single MPEG-4 ouput file. The new APIs are a counterpart to the media demuxing APIs introduced in Android 4.2.
Playback progress and scrubbing in remote control clients
Since Android 4.0, media players and similar applications have been able to offer playback controls from remote control clients such as the device lock screen, notifications, and remote devices connected over Bluetooth. Starting in Android 4.3, those applications can now also expose playback progress and speed through their remote control clients, and receive commands to jump to a specific playback position.

New Ways to Build Beautiful Apps

Access to notifications
Notifications have long been a popular Android feature because they let users see information and updates from across the system, all in one place. Now in Android 4.3, apps can observe the stream of notifications with the user's permission and display the notifications in any way they want, including sending them to nearby devices connected over Bluetooth.
You can access notifications through new APIs that let you register a notification listener service and with permission of the user, receive notifications as they are displayed in the status bar. Notifications are delivered to you in full, with all details on the originating app, the post time, the content view and style, and priority. You can evaluate fields of interest in the notifications, process or add context from your app, and route them for display in any way you choose.
The new API gives you callbacks when a notification is added, updated, and removed (either because the user dismissed it or the originating app withdrew it). You'll be able to launch any intents attached to the notification or its actions, as well as dismiss it from the system, allowing your app to provide a complete user interface to notifications.
Users remain in control of which apps can receive notifications. At any time, they can look in Settings to see which apps have notification access and enable or disable access as needed. Notification access is disabled by default — apps can use a new Intent to take the user directly to the Settings to enable the listener service after installation.

View overlays
You can now create transparent overlays on top of Views and ViewGroups to render a temporary View hierarchy or transient animation effects without disturbing the underlying layout hierarchy. Overlays are particularly useful when you want to create animations such as sliding a view outside of its container or dragging items on the screen without affecting the view hierarchy.

Optical bounds layout mode
A new layout mode lets you manage the positioning of Views inside ViewGroups according to their optical bounds, rather than their clip bounds. Clip bounds represent a widget’s actual outer boundary, while the new optical bounds describe the where the widget appears to be, within the clip bounds. You can use the optical bounds layout mode to properly align widgets that use outer visual effects such as shadows and glows.

Custom rotation animation types
Apps can now define the exit and entry animation types used on a window when the device is rotated. You can set window properties to enable jump-cutcross-fade, or standard window rotation. The system uses the custom animation types when the window is fullscreen and is not covered by other windows.

Screen orientation modes
Apps can set new orientation modes for Activities to ensure that they are displayed in the proper orientation when the device is flipped. Additionally, apps can use a new mode to lock the screen to its current orientation. This is useful for apps using the camera that want to disable rotation while shooting video.

Intent for handling Quick Responses
Android 4.3 introduces a new public Intent that lets any app handle Quick Responses — text messages sent by the user in response to an incoming call, without needing to pick up the call or unlock the device. Your app can listen for the intent and send the message to the caller over your messaging system. The intent includes the recipient (caller) as well as the message itself.

Support for International Users
More parts of Android 4.3 are optimized for RTL languages.

RTL improvements
Android 4.3 includes RTL performance enhancements and broader RTL support across framework UI widgets, including ProgressBar/Spinner and ExpandableListView. More debugging information visible through the uiautomatorviewer tool. In addition, more system UI components are now RTL aware, such as notifications, navigation bar and the Action Bar.
To provide a better systemwide experience in RTL scripts, more default system apps now support RTL layouts, including Launcher, Quick Settings, Phone, People, SetupWizard, Clock, Downloads, and more.

Utilities for localization
Pseudo-locales make it easier to test your app's localization.

Android 4.3 also includes new utilities and APIs for creating better RTL strings and testing your localized UIs. A new BidiFormatter class provides a simple API for wrapping Unicode strings, so that RTL-script data is displayed as intended in LTR-locale messages and vice-versa. To let you use this utility more broadly in your apps, the BidiFormatter API is also now available for earlier platform versions through the Support Package in the Android SDK.
To assist you with managing date formatting across locales, Android 4.3 includes a new getBestDateTimePattern() method that automatically generates the best possible localized form of a Unicode UTS date for a locale that you specify. It’s a convenient way to provide a more localized experience for your users.
To help you test your app more easily in other locales, Android 4.3 introduces pseudo-locales as a new developer option. Pseudo-locales simulate the language, script, and display characteristics associated with a locale or language group. Currently, you can test with a pseudo-locale for Accented English, which lets you see how your UI works with script accents and characters used in a variety of European languages.

Accessibility and UI Automation

Starting in Android 4.3, accessibility services can observe and filter key events, such as to handle keyboard shortcuts or provide navigation parity with gesture-based input. The service receives the events and can process them as needed before they are passed to the system or other installed apps.
Accessibility services can declare new capability attributes to describe what their services can do and what platform features they use. For example, they can declare the capability to filter key events, retrieve window content, enable explore-by-touch, or enable web accessibility features. In some cases, services must declare a capability attribute before they can access related platform features. The system uses the service’s capability attributes to generate an opt-in dialog for users, so they can see and agree to the capabilities before launch.
Building on the accessibility framework in Android 4.3, a new UI automation framework lets tests interact with the device’s UI by simulating user actions and introspecting the screen content. Through the UI automation framework you can perform basic operations, set rotation of the screen, generate input events, take screenshots, and much more. It’s a powerful way to automate testing in realistic user scenarios, including actions or sequences that span multiple apps.

Enterprise and Security

Wi-Fi configuration for WPA2-Enterprise networks
Apps can now configure the Wi-Fi credentials they need for connections to WPA2 enterprise access points. Developers can use new APIs to configure Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) and Encapsulated EAP (Phase 2) credentials for authentication methods used in the enterprise. Apps with permission to access and change Wi-Fi can configure authentication credentials for a variety of EAP and Phase 2 authentication methods.

Android sandbox reinforced with SELinux
Android now uses SELinux, a mandatory access control (MAC) system in the Linux kernel to augment the UID based application sandbox. This protects the operating system against potential security vulnerabilities.

KeyChain enhancements
The KeyChain API now provides a method that allows applications to confirm that system-wide keys are bound to ahardware root of trust for the device. This provides a place to create or store private keys that cannot be exported off the device, even in the event of a root or kernel compromise.

Android Keystore Provider
Android 4.3 introduces a keystore provider and APIs that allow applications to create exclusive-use keys. Using the APIs, apps can create or store private keys that cannot be seen or used by other apps, and can be added to the keystore without any user interaction.
The keystore provider provides the same security benefits that the KeyChain API provides for system-wide credentials, such as binding credentials to a device. Private keys in the keystore cannot be exported off the device.

Restrict Setuid from Android Apps
The /system partition is now mounted nosuid for zygote-spawned processes, preventing Android applications from executing setuid programs. This reduces root attack surface and likelihood of potential security vulnerabilities.

New Ways to Analyze Performance
Systrace uses a new command syntax and lets you collect more types of profiling data.

Enhanced Systrace logging
Android 4.3 supports an enhanced version of theSystrace tool that’s easier to use and that gives you access to more types of information to profile the performance of your app. You can now collect trace data from hardware moduleskernel functions,Dalvik VM including garbage collection, resources loading, and more.
Android 4.3 also includes new Trace APIs that you can use in your apps to mark specific sections of code to trace using Systrace begin/end events. When the marked sections of code execute, the system writes the begin/end events to the trace log. There's minimal impact on the performance of your app, so timings reported give you an accurate view of what your app is doing.
You can visualize app-specific events in a timeline in the Systrace output file and analyze the events in the context of other kernel and user space trace data. Together with existing Systrace tags, custom app sections can give you new ways to understand the performance and behavior of your apps.
On-screen GPU profiling in Android 4.3.

On-screen GPU profiling
Android 4.3 adds new developer options to help you analyze your app’s performance and pinpoint rendering issues on any device or emulator.
In the Profile GPU rendering option you can now visualize your app’s effective framerate on-screen, while the app is running. You can choose to display profiling data as on-screen bar or line graphs, with colors indicating time spent creating drawing commands (blue), issuing the commands (orange), and waiting for the commands to complete (yellow). The system updates the on-screen graphs continuously, displaying a graph for each visible Activity, including the navigation bar and notification bar.
A green line highlights the 16ms threshold for rendering operations, so you can assess the your app’s effective framerate relative to a 60 fps goal (because 1/60th of a second equals roughly 16ms). If you see operations that cross the green line, you can analyze them further using Systrace and other tools.

On devices running Android 4.2 and higher, developer options are hidden by default. You can reveal them at any time by tapping 7 times on Settings > About phone > Build number on any compatible Android device.

StrictMode warning for file URIs
The latest addition to the StrictMode tool is a policy constraint that warns when your app exposes a file:// URI to the system or another app. In some cases the receiving app may not have access to the file:// URI path, so when sharing files between apps, a content:// URI should be used (with the appropriate permission). This new policy helps you catch and fix such cases. If you’re looking for a convenient way to store and expose files to other apps, try using theFileProvider content provider that’s available in the Support Library.

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